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Family Reports in Parenting Matters

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When it comes to family law parenting disputes, the court's primary concern is the best interests of the child/children. To make informed decisions, the court often relies on expert evidence, one of which is the Family Report. A family report provides a comprehensive assessment of the family dynamics and the child's needs, serving as a vital tool for judges to understand the complexities involved. In this article, we explore the significance of a family report in parenting matters and discuss the steps that can be taken to challenge its findings.

What is a Family Report?

Strictly speaking, a Family Report is a comprehensive assessment prepared by a family consultant appointed by the court under Section 62G of the Family Law Act 1975. The report is ordered when a case is progressing to a final hearing and aims to assist both parties and the court in making decisions regarding the children involved. All family reports are organised by the Court Children's Service. The family consultant considers various factors, including the children's experiences, development, family circumstances, and other relevant issues, to make recommendations that prioritise the best interests of the children.

It should be noted that a Family Report prepared by a family consultant is distinct from a private report. The former is ordered by the court, organized by the Court Children's Service, and funded by the court with no costs incurred by the parties. In contrast, parties may choose to engage a private expert to provide a private report, which is paid for by the parties themselves. The Court Children's Service has no involvement in private reports. Furthermore, a Family Report differs from an Expert Report. Expert reports are required when specific expertise is needed, such as psychiatric assessments, and are generally paid for by the parties involved.

Family Report Process

After the family report is ordered, you or your lawyer will usually receive a letter or email with the appointment details for you and the children to meet with the family consultant. It is mandatory to attend these appointments, as failure to do so may result in delays and additional costs. Appointments can usually only be changed in exceptional circumstances.

During the interviews and observation sessions, the family consultant conducts individual interviews with each party and may also interview other significant people involved, such as adult siblings, partners, or grandparents. The children will be seen separately from adults in most cases, and they will usually be given the opportunity to express their views and wishes, depending on their age.

The family consultant gathers information about the issues in dispute, past and present parenting arrangements, the parenting capacity of each party, the children's relationships with significant people, the children's wishes and views, and any risks to the children. The consultant may request permission to contact relevant professionals or access subpoenaed material for more information.

It is important to note that any information provided to the family consultant is not confidential and can be used as evidence in court. The family consultant may need to disclose certain information to child welfare authorities or the police, if there are concerns of abuse or harm to a child.

Once the family report is completed, it is provided to the presiding judge or registrar, who will release the report formally. You or your lawyer will receive a copy of the report at that time. The report becomes part of the formal evidence in your case and usually substantially affects the outcome of the case. The report usually cannot be provided to anyone other than the parties and their legal representatives.

Challenging Family Report

If you disagree with the contents of a family report, the appropriate way to challenge it is through cross-examination at the Final Hearing in Court. This requires calling the family consultant as a witness. During cross-examination, you, the other party, the Independent Children's Lawyer (if appointed), and the presiding judge can ask questions to challenge the contents and assessments made in the report.

Occasionally, it may be possible to seek an appointment of a new family consultant prior to release of the family report, if you have experienced significant bias or mistreatment from a family consultant during the interview, however, such applications to the Court are extremely rare and should be made with caution and only in exceptional circumstances, where it can be demonstrated that a family consultant has acted unprofessionally and/or shown a clear bias towards one of the parties.

Challenging the family consultant during cross-examination at the final hearing requires careful preparation and strategic questioning. Here are some key points to consider when preparing to challenge the family report writer:

1. Thoroughly Review the Report: This almost goes without saying, but we find that many clients omit this step! When the family report is released, you should thoroughly review it. Identify any inconsistencies, biases, or omissions that may impact its credibility or objectivity. Take note of specific sections or statements that you plan to address during cross-examination.

2. Prepare a Line of Questioning: Your counsel (or yourself if acting unrepresented) will have to develop a clear and structured line of questioning that aims to expose any weaknesses or potential biases in the report. It essential to focus on specific concerns or areas of contention, and formulate questions that require the family report writer to provide detailed explanations and justifications for their conclusions.

3. Establish Expertise and Impartiality: During cross-examination, your counsel should establish the expertise and qualifications of the family report writer. They should ask questions about their professional background, training, and experience in conducting family assessments. This can help highlight any potential limitations or biases in their approach.

4. Challenge Assumptions and Methodology: Your counsel should then explore any underlying assumptions and methodology employed by the family report writer. Your legal team should question the consultant's basis for certain conclusions, asking for clarification on the evidence and observations that support their findings. If there are alternative theories or perspectives, these should be presented to the consultant and he or she must be asked to express opinions on those.

5. Identify Inconsistencies or Omissions: Your counsel should also point out any inconsistencies or omissions in the report that may undermine its reliability. Specific examples and evidence should be used to highlight potential inaccuracies or biased interpretations. Cross-referencing the report with other evidence or testimonies that support your arguments is always a good idea.

6. Highlight Counter-Evidence: Lastly, your counsel may be able to present any relevant counter-evidence or alternative opinions that contradict the findings of the family report. This can include expert opinions, assessments from other professionals, or witness testimonies that offer a different perspective on the child's best interests.

Remember, effective cross-examination requires careful planning, understanding of the case, and familiarity with the family report. Usually your family lawyer will work closely with your senior counsel (and in consultation with yourself) to develop a detailed strategic approach and ensure that your cross-examination effectively challenges the family report writer's conclusions and strengthens your position.


Family reports play a crucial role in parenting matters, helping courts make decisions that prioritise the best interests of the child. These reports are not infallible, and a critical challenge to these reports often becomes necessary, especially if the findings of the report do not advance the best interests of the child.

By engaging experienced family lawyers, like our team at Surge Legal, to review and challenge a family report, if required, you can ensure that your case is effectively presented, increasing the chances of a fair outcome for your parenting matter. Contact us today on 02 8722 5021 or book your consultation online via this link.


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